Be Sure To Read the First 3 Posts Before Reading This One
So Where Are We After Looking At 3 Arab Refusals To Accept British and Israeli Offers of a Realistic 2-State Solution on Palestine in 1937, 1939, and 1947-48?
We're Right Here: the 1967 attacks on Israeli by Egyptians, Jordanians, and Syrians and the Six Day War
In June 1967, the megalomanical Pan-Arab dictator of Egypt, Gamal Abdel Nasser, ordered the UN Peace Maker Units out of the Sinai Desert --- put there by the UN after the 1956 war between Egypt and Israel, France, and Britain. He added that his country and all the other Arabs would never be at peace with Israel; insisted that war was still on; and moved to blockade the Israeli ports on the Red Sea. The Israelis retaliated with an air attack on Egyptian military airports, invaded the Sinai Peninsula, crossed the Suez Canal, and threatened to move to the outskirts of Cairo, all the while fighting the invasion on the eastern side of Israel by Jordan and Syria. Once again, the Arab militaries were quickly and totally stopped and half-destroyed.
Just this: After the 1967 victory over the Egyptians, Jordanians, and Syrians, the Israeli government offered to withdraw to the earlier boundaries, with some limited changes for security reasons (the 1967 UN resolution on the Israeli occupations of the West Bank and Gaza allowed for this), and the Arab League's members meeting in Khartoum Sudan, in September that year, issued a resolution that contained in the third paragraph their views of compromise: "NO peace with Israel; NO recognition of Israel; NO negotiations to Israel." Source
In November 1967 the UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 242 that set out two major principles to guide all future negotiations for a "just and lasting peace in the Middle East:"
"Affirms that the fulfillment of Charter principles requires the establishment of a just and lasting peace in the Middle East which should include the application of both the following principles:
"(i) Withdrawal of Israel armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict;
"(ii) Termination of all claims or states of belligerency and respect for and acknowledgment of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every State in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force."
The Israeli government accepted the guiding principles for a just and lasting peace and offered "to seek agreement with each Arab State on all matters included in that resolution." That was in May 1968. In October the same year, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) headed by Yasser Arafat, totally rejected the resolution. (In September 1993 the PLO, still headed by Arafat (an incorrigible terrorist leader) accepted Resolution 242 and 338 as part of the Oslo Agreement on basic principles to guide the Israeli and Palestinian negotiations on a two-state solution. By now you know the result: despite several years of israeli-Palestinian discussions, mediated by the USA, Arafat refused the generous offer put forward by the American mediators --- accepted by the Israelis ---much to President Clinton's astonishment)
No 2: 2008 Israeli Offer to President Abbas for an even better Two-State Solution for the Palestinian Arabs
In 2008, Prime Minister Olmert offered a similar plan, only more generous, to the Palestinian authority. President Abbas never even replied despite a meeting with Olmert earlier and subsequent discussions among the Palestinian Authority's leadership. Source:
In 1973, Israel was attacked by Syria and Egypt out of the blue and again defeated.
No need for our purposes today to dig into more of these armed conflicts. On and on it goes, Arab intransigence. By now you know who was defeated. Even after the 1973 defeats, the Arab League and the newly recognized PLA headed by Yasser Arafat --- founded years earlier, but not recognized by any Arab state --- refused any compromise that would create a two-state solution.
And suddenly a big surprise out of Cairo Egypt
In 1979, thanks in part to Jimmy Carter's mediation, President Anwar El Sadat and Prime Minister Menachen Begin signed an agreement for peace and diplomatic exchange. Sadat was killed not long after by Arab terrorists. Then, in 1993, Jordan's leadership recognized the state of Israel too, mainly thanks to the Oslo Peace Accord signed by both Israeli and Palestinian leaders. In 1996, the Palestinian National Authority headed by Yasser Arafat took control of both the West Bank and Gaza.
TWO IMPORTANT OFFERS BY ISRAELI GOVERNMENTS AFTER 2000 FOR A TWO-STATE SOLUTION
No. 1: From Camp David in the summer of 2000 to early 2001
At Camp David in 2000, and later in follow-up negotiations between Israeli and Palestinian representatives over the next few months, the Israeli Labor government headed by Prime Minister Evan Barak --- an esteemed former IDF General --- accepted in December 2000 the American offer (mediated by President Clinton himself originally) to do the following:
to have Israel return near to its pre-1967 boundaries (which the UN Resolutions in 1967 and again in 1973 allowed: Israeli should have security-based borders in a two-state solution);
to remove all Jewish settlements from the West Bank except those directly contiguous to Jerusalem;
to have shared rule with the new Palestinian state in East Jerusalem;
to compensate for the contiguous settlements with land from Israel (the new boundary would give the Palestinians 96% of their land before the compensation);
and to use 30 billion dollars to compensate the 700,000 refugee Arabs who fled or were forced out of the Israeli-occupied areas set up by the UN in 1948 and some areas that were allocated to the Arabs;.
and finally to construct a corridor --- to be negotiated --- that would link Gaza with the West Bank.
Arafat, to Clinton's astonishment --- and that of Dennis Ross, the major diplomat of the Clinton and George Bush Sr. for the Middle East who led the negotiations with the Israelis and Palestinians --- not only rejected any compromise-offer (throughout 2000 into 2001), but never reported it to its people. All this, mind you, after Dennis Ross, the major Middle East emissary in the Bush Sr., Clinton, and later, off and on, in the Bush Jr. and Obama administrations, led a mediating team created by Clinton in the fall of 2000 to encourage the Palestinians and Israel to negotiate further. The aim? To see if the Palestinian Authority headed by Arafat would be more flexible. He wasn't at all.
In an interview and later in his book, Ross underscored that the failure to reach a two-state solution was mainly Arafat's fault.
Source: A full account, 872 pages long by Dennis Ross, The Missing Peace: The Inside Story of the Fight for Middle East Peace (2005), is fascinating and very well written, but very time consuming. Probably for connoisseurs only. In the last chapter of that book, Ross --- now no longer an Ambassador in the Foreign Service (but used by the Bush Jr. administration for negotiations and more recently by the Obama administration)--- puts the blame for the failure of the Camp-David offer and subsequent negotiations between Israelis and Palestinian representatives squarely on Arafat (as he mentioned in passing in his interview on Fox News).
For the Fox Interview: it will not work with a hyperlink to the interview itself on the web. Can't tell why. Fortunately, a slight round about way to reach the interview is to click on the following link:
That will take you to Free Republic's web site. There, right under the name of Dennis Ross at the top of your browser screen, you will see "Fox News" in red. Click on that link and it will take you to the Fox News Interview.
PART 5 OF THE SERIES FOLLOWS NEXT