Be Sure To Read the First Two Parts of This Series Before This One
WHAT FOLLOWS HERE IN THIS 3RD PART of THIS BUGGY SERIES
Arab Refusals To Compromise and Recognize An Independent Jewish Israeli State
For 78 years now (back to 1937 as you'll see), there has been an unchangeable and total repetitive refusal both by the Palestinian leaders and Arab League dictators to accept any compromise that would realistically partition the Israeli and Arab areas into a functioning and peaceful two-state solution. Instead, they have rejected any reasonable compromise-partition at all in either of two ways:
1) They have sneered and rejected any compromise that would create an independent Israeli state, however small it would be --- just as they have tried to destroy the Israeli state when it was created in 1948 and since then as well. More to the point, but briefly for the time being, the Arab rejections encompass these compromise offers accepted by the Jewish side:
First in 1937 under British rule of Palestine (the rule created by the League-of-Nations in 1922) that would have partitioned Palestine into a small independent Israeli corridor-state and a larger Arab independent state.
Then in another British offer in 1939 that reneged on any Jewish state and promised to create a totally Arab-run control of all of Palestine in 10 years --- the offer astonishingly rejected by the Arab side, unwilling to wait a decade to achieve all its aims.
Then --- even more important --- in 1947-48 when the UN created an independent Israeli state, followed by a civil war in British Mandate Palestine and then the invasion of the new Israeli state in by 6 Arab states;
Then again in 1967 when Egypt, Syria, and Jordan invaded Israel in an attempt to destroy the state;
Then again the aftermath of the 1967 Israeli victory in that 6-day war, when a few weeks later the Israeli government offered to withdraw back to the previous borders with the West Bank and Gaza Arab areas in return for peace and recognition by the Arab League. The League members, 22 of them, replied with the infamous three-no's: No negotiations with Israeli, no peace, no recognition.
Then again in 1973 when Syria and Jordan invaded Israel.
Note that two Arab countries, Egypt and Jordan --- which ruled Gaza and the West Bank from 1948 to 1967 in that order --- never allowed any Palestinian nationalism to occur that threatened their hold on those two areas. Since 1979, Egypt recognized Israel as a state and established diplomatic relations. The Egyptian leader Muhammad Anwar El Sadat flew to Jerusalem, and he and Prime Minister Menachem Begin signed a peace-treaty that President Carter helped bring about.
Two years later, Sadat was killed by jihadi extremists for making peace with Israel. In effect, Egypt's governments starting with Sadat recognized Israel, but never the Egyptian people (95% of the Egyptian masses were found in the Pew global org 2010 survey to be seriously anti-Semitic. Source: http://www.pewglobal.org/2008/09/17/chapter-1-views-of-religious-groups/ For a lower estimate (75% Egyptians found to be anti-Semitic in 2014 by the ADL): http://global100.adl.org/#map/meast That's a big drop, no? --- though still very high.
2) In negotiations between the Israelis and Palestinian Authority since the Mid-1990s to arrive at a peace-treaty and create a Two-State solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Palestinian and Arab-League leader have imposed four unrealistic demands that the Israelis must accept:
This is the case whether the offers were negotiated between Israelis and the Palestinian Authority with the help of American mediators or were directly offered by Israel to the Palestinian leadership of President Mahmoud Abbas without American help. The same is true of the unilateral offer of peace by the Arab League in 2002 and again in 2007 to the Israelis. Specifically, the Arab-side's rejection of a realistic compromise leading to peace and two-state solution requires that Israel accept 3 demands that Israel has been overwhelmingly likely to refuse doing. Namely:
Full and exclusive Arab control of East Jerusalem
Withdrawal of Israeli-held Palestinian areas on the West Bank back to the 1967 borders --- a retreat that would leave Israel with a very narrow corridor of protection from Syrian and Hezbollah attacks in the north.
On its own, remember, Israel unilaterally withdrew from Gaza in mid- 2005, followed in early 2006 by the Hamas terrorist movement being elected to run Gaza itself --- and followed farther by setting up a jihadi-dictatorship over Gaza that destroyed the Palestinian Authority's presence in the area in bloody gun battles. Since which time, the jihadi terrorists have simultaneously imposed rigid Sharia law on the reluctant Palestinians that covers all aspects of human life --- not just religious observations. And additionally started two self-destructive wars with the Israelis
Unimpeded ability of all Arab refugees, or their descendents, who fled from their home areas in the 1948 war that the Arabs created, during which 6 Arab states invaded the new Israeli state in an effort to destroy it. (Figures of the numbers of Jews and Arabs in Palestine and the number of Arab refugees and why they fled will be found later in this buggy part-3. Along with counter Israeli-offers on the refugee problem.)
By Contrast, Israeli Peace Offers, Especially Since 2000 Have Done the Following:
offered on its side to withdraw from about 95% to 97% of the Palestinian West Bank (with this 3-5% annexation compensated by negotiating with the new Palestinian state to take control of an equal amount of Israeli territory to be negotiated further;)
offered to let Palestinian leaders to have joint control of East Jerusalem and to let the Palestinian government of the new state relocate to Jerusalem;
offered by negotiations to connect Gaza and the West Bank by strictly Palestinian control of the highway link with no Israeli influence as long as peace prevailed;
offered to dismantle all Jewish settlements in the West Bank except those immediately contiguous to Jerusalem;
offered $30 billion to the Arab refugees who either fled during the 1948 war because they were threatened by Israeli advances or because they were enticed to flee by Arab propaganda and believed they would soon return to their homes when Israeli was defeated by the invading Arab armies.
Note, in passing for the time being, that the number of Palestinian refugees who fled their homes in the 1948 war between Israel and the Arab armies of several nearby Arab countries was found by the UN inspectors after the war to number 726,00, though whether they were forced out or enticed by Arab media or fled out of fear is controversial and will be dealt with later here.
The number of Jews fleeing enraged Arab countries and Iran numbered 800,000 in 1948. WIthin two years, 90% of them had fled while unable to take any of their property away and with any money usually stolen by Arab and Persian authorities. There was still tens of thousands living in Egypt, traditionally more hospitable to the Jews (Tunisia too), but they fled in the 1956 war between the Egyptian dictatorship and France, Britain, and Israel. Essentially, the number of refugees on both sides --- Palestinians who fled Israeli territory or military advances and Jews who fled Arab countries and Iran more or less evened on.)
offered, finally, to withdraw eventually all its military presence in the West Bank to or toward the 1967 borders except for the Golan Heights --- something that had to be negotiated between the Israeli and Syrian government. ( Otherwise, Israel in the far north would have only 7 miles between a Syrian presence on the Golan Height again and the Mediterranean sea.)
What Follows Now
The rest of the buggy analysis will seek to underpin these claims with specific data, along with a deeper probing since 1937 of Arab refusal of all compromise-efforts to settle the Israeli-Palestinian conflict peacefully, leading to peace and a realistic two-state solution.
What Follows Now
This buggy analysis will seek to underpin these claims with specific data, along with a deeper analysis since 1937 of Arab refusal of all compromise-efforts to settle the Israeli-Palestinian conflict peacefully, leading to peace and a realistic two-state solution.
Three Key Points To Keep In Mind As You Read On:
(1.) No independent Arab government had existed anywhere on the Arab Peninsula --- including Palestine --- for more than 400 years by the end of WWI in 1918.
Since 1516, the control and rule over the Arabs was in the hands of the powerful Ottoman Empire. To establish its powerful dominance over the entire Arab Peninsula, the Ottoman Turks --- who had destroyed the Byzantine Empire in 1454 --- had to vanquish by war the previous dominant Muslim-converted Turkish rulers in the region: Sunni Mamluks and Shia Safavids . . . the latter a Persian dynasty who had earlier conquered the Persians.
When the remnants of the Ottoman Empire, shrunken to Turkey only and the Arab Peninsula by 1914, sided with Germany and the Austrian Empire in WWI, the various Arab desert-tribes in Saudi Arabia and elsewhere were encouraged to rebel against the Turks by the British --- who provided them with weaponry and help (recall here Lawrence of Arabia). The Arabs, however --- who hated the Turks --- no sooner had overrun the entire Middle East than the victorious British and French took control of them and carved out the existing Arab states after 1918.
As for Palestine, the British ruled over its Arab and Jewish populations under a League of Nations mandate starting in 1922. The British pulled out of Palestine in the late spring of 1948, following the UN creation of the Israeli state. It was then --- a day after the last British soldier exited Palestine --- that 6 Arab armies attacked the new Jewish state.
(2.) There had never been any Palestinian Arab nationalism during the 400 years of Ottoman rule.
It began only under British Mandate rule after 1922, and even then large numbers of poor downtrodden Arabs from surrounding countries moved into Palestine in order to get jobs in the rapidly expanding Jewish kibbutz (community farms) and new industries . . . with Palestine itself, until the Zionists arrived there in the early 1900s, a very poor and backward country. The small group of affluent Palestinians who owned most of the land that the Ottomans didn't control --- which means only 20% of all Palestine land was in the hands of Palestinians --- generally preferred to live a more ritzy existence in Beirut (Lebanon) or Cairo (Egypt). It was they, the absentee landlords, who sold lands to the Zionists. The Zionists, for their part, never seized any Arab land without buying it.
These Zionist purchases went on in Mandate British Palestine through the 1930s, by which time the Arabs were stirred up to attack Jewish Kibbutz and business areas in the fast-growing Jewish towns and cities along the Mediterranean coast . . . in which businesses more and more Arabs found jobs. These attacks were reined in by the British police and large military, but In mid-and-late 1930s the British found it impossible to stop the bloody attacks and began to arms large numbers of Jewish volunteers to help them fight the semi-rebellion. Even so, as the half-covert war went on, the Zionists continued to buy more land from the Arab landowners. 52.6% of the lands were purchased from large non- Palestinian landowners, with another 24.6% from Arab landowners living in Palestine (off and on), and only 9.4% from the poor peasant farmers (Fellahin)
Had there been long-standing Palestinian nationalism going back even 100 years under both Ottoman and later British rule, it's doubtful --- wouldn't you say --- that in the midst of a blood-soaked rebellion fellow Palestinians would sell so much land to the Jews.
(3.) The entire Arab world population --- numbering 70 million or so in 1948 when Israel became an independent state --- now numbers 422 million.
Additionally, in the Middle East region, Iran now has 80 million people. Turkey --- a member of NATO now in the grip of a semi-fanatical enthusiast of strict Sharia-law --- has 80 million people too. The upshot: all the 582 million "street masses" in these Muslim countries are found in ADL and Pewgobal survey sources to be seriously anti-Semitic to the tune of 90% of these 582 million people (and somewhat lower than 90% in the ADL 2014 survey). Understand: the surveys probe Jewish-hatred, not hatred of Israel.)
As for the Jewish and Arab populations in Palestine, the League of Nation survey in 1920 showed that only 700 thousand people lived in all that region --- a population far smaller than the province of Galillee when Jesus was born. Arabs numbered about 89% of the total population, but 11% of them were Christians (mainly Orthodox). Jews numbered 76,000. Even then, as the League of Nation survey found, Jewish agricultural kibbutz (communities) were found and immediately flourished. Unlike the Arab landowners and agricultural workers, the Jews "practiced agriculture with modern methods" that led to them draining swamps, planting large numbers of trees, cultivated wine-vineyards, and developed a large orange trade with the cities and towns.
By 1948, the population in Palestine had risen to 1,900,000, of whom 68% were Arabs, and 32% were Jews(UNSCOP report, including Bedouin). Of the Arab population, 8% were Christian and another 1% or so weren't either.
REPEATED OFFERS OF A TWO-STATE COMPROMISE AND ARAB REJECTIONS
1936: The Original Offer of a Two-State Solution Explained:
In an open vote several hundred Zionist leaders from around the world --- meeting in Zurich in August 1937 --- accepted overwhelmingly the 1937 British Peel Royal-Commission's recommendations to partition the British-run Mandatory-Palestine into two parts, one Jewish and one Palestinian. (Peel was a British Lord) It was the first time a two-state solution was offered by the British government, which had a Mandate-Rule in Palestine since 1922. The Zionists did want to negotiate with the Arab leaders of Palestine and the Arab High-Authority (the forerunners of the Arab League) over some exchanges of Jewish and Arab areas that the Peel Commission set out in the 450 page report.
The Peel recommendations, please note, occurred after several months of interviewing Jewish and Arab leaders and other representatives of both side in Palestine.
The Arab response? Total refusal. The refusal included all the leaders of the new Arab states created after WWI. (See source below)
1939: Astonishing Rejection by Arabs of Total Arab Control of All Palestine By 1949
Again, in May 1939 --- when British leaders were aware that WWII was just ahead and were now preoccupied with keeping the oil-rich and other Arab countries from siding with Hitler's Germany --- a White Paper issued by the British government offered the Arabs
- to severely reduce any Jewish immigration in Palestine for 5 years,
- to create an independent Palestinian state in 10 years time (1949),
- to decide on their own in that independent Arab state what to do about any more Jewish immigration to be decided by the Arabs themselves,
- to, finally, for the British themselves in the next 10 years to limit any Jewish purchases of Palestinian lands.
In effect, this British White Paper-offer would totally renege on the Balfour Offer to create a Jewish homeland (originally over not just all of Palestine but Jordan) and severely limit Jewish immigration in WWII and afterwards . . . this despite the Holocaust (denied as occurring by the Iranian government and numerous Arab spokesmen) in that war. And in effect the promised 1949 Independent Palestinian state would be almost totally Arab in population, that year and forever.
The Arab leaders response to the 1939 White Paper, in and outside of Palestine? They all refused brusquely to accept those White Paper's offers. In fact, they added in reply that they would refuse forever any offer of a partition of Palestinian territory.
Source for the paragraphs down to now: Benny Morris, 1949: The First Arab-Israeli War (Yale 2008), pp. 16-21. (Morris is regarded by almost all scholars as the most important of the "revisionist" Israeli historians who began to re-write the standard Israeli history about very good Jews and very bad Arabs in the 1948 war for Israeli independence and the invasion of the new UN-created state by 5 Arab state-militaries.)
The Refusal Again of the Arab League Countries and Palestinian Leaders in 1948 To Tolerate a UN Creation of an Israeli State.
The Jewish leaders accepted the UN partition in 1947-48, the Palestinian and other Arab leaders bluntly rejected it. 6 Arab states eventually invaded Israel in the early summer of 1948, all of whom were defeated. The states were Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq --- plus 70 planes and piolets sent by Saudi Arabia
Consider now what the two-state UN partition amounted to, including the creation of an independent Israeli state:
- Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Partition_Plan_for_Palestine
- "The land allocated to the Arab State in the final plan included about 43% of Mandatory Palestine and consisted of all of the highlands, except for Jerusalem, plus one-third of the coastline.
- "The highlands contain the major aquifers of Palestine, which supplied water to the coastal cities of central Palestine, including Tel Aviv.
- "The Jewish State was to receive 56% of Mandatory Palestine, a slightly larger area to accommodate the increasing numbers of Jews who would immigrate there. The Jewish State included three fertile lowland plains – the Sharon on the coast, the Jezreel Valley and the upper Jordan Valley.
- The bulk of the proposed Jewish State's territory, however, consisted of the Negev Desert." (The desert was not sit for agriculture, nor for urban development at that time). The Jewish State would also be given sole access to the Red Sea."
The Israeli defeats of the Arab invaders in 1948 stopped short, deliberately, of pushing the Jordanians and the Egyptians outside of all the Palestinian borders. Those would be overwhelmingly Arab areas, with the Jordanians ruling in the West Bank from 1948 to 1967 and the Egyptians in Gaza in the same period. Neither of these country's governments allowed for any Palestinian self-government for the, period.
Both Benny Morris in his book "1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War" (Yale 2009) and his main critic Efraim Karsh in his book "Palestine Betrayed"(Yale 2010) unpredictably more or less agreed that most of the Palestinian exoduses from Palestine during the 9 months of combined civil war and war between Israel and 6 Arab states were voluntary --- or egged on by Arab media outside of Palestine urging them to evacuate temporarily until the Arab states invaded the new Israeli state and destroyed the Israeli military.
(Benny Morris (the dominant historian in the revisionist history of the 1948 war in several earlier books) and Efraim Karsh his major opponent are well-known and highly regarded professors of Middle East history. Morris is a professor at Ben Gurion University in Israel, and Karsh heads the Middle East and Mediterranean Studies Program at King's College, the University of London.
The two authors --- --- also agree that there were clearly forced evacuations by the Israeli military of Arabs living in big towns and cities where Arab fighters were hiding as Israeli forces moved quickly forward to the borders of the Arab invading forces. behind their fast-moving forward military advances --- just as they both document Jewish terrorist attacks on a small handful of Arab towns. (The leaders of the new Israel strongly and publicly condemned those terrorist attacks by Irgun and the Stern Gang, forced them to disband, and insured that they would be distributed among all the other Jewish units then under the control of the IDF (Israeli Defense Forces).
Where Morris and Karsh further agree, despite their bitter dislike for one another, is that in their archival research they find no evidence of systematic ethnic-cleansing. (No, there are no archival researches in any of the Arab countries, or the Arab League, open to Arab scholars, whether in the Arab world or in Europe or the USA.)
Almost all of the ethnic-cleansing was, to repeat, left to IDF unit-leaders to leave the Arabs behind them as they fought against both 5 invading Arab countries and several thousand Arab-League irregulars --- most of the latter in the city areas the Jews were fighting. In the end, a good summary of the various attacks on civilians by both sides, Jews and Arabs, shows more or less an even number of atrocities . . . the total number on each side fairly small. (Morris, increasingly disillusioned by Palestinians refusals of Israeli-offers for a two-state solution --- described in a few seconds later here --- notes that Arab massacres or atrocities were limited in the battle zones by their failure in the civil war between Jews and Arabs (the fall of 1947 until the Jews went on the offensive in March 1948) to capture any Jewish settlement. In the end, the Arab and Jewish atrocities more or less evened out.
First Source for the last claim of "evened out " and documented:
Sources for the wider concerns about atrocities and terrorism: Benny Morris, 1948 book, especially pp. 404-407, plus the next 12 pages --- about the Arab refugees and the Jewish refugees (the latter, somewhere between 500,000 to 600,000 living in Arab states and Iran and forced out or running for their lives vs. 700,000 Arab refugees from Israel):
As Morris notes on p. 407 in that 2008 book of his:
(1) "The  war resulted in the creation of some seven hundred thousand Arab refugees. In part, this was a product of the expulsionist elements in athe ideologies of both sides in the conflict. By 1948, many in the Zionist leadership accepted the idea and necessity of transfer, and this affected events during the war. But this gradual acceptance was in large part a response to the expulsionist ideology and violent praxis of al-Husseini and his followers during the previous two decades.
"Both national movements entered the mid-1940s with an expulsionist element in their ideological baggade. Among the Zionists, it was a minor and secondary element, occasionally entertained and enunciated by key leaders, including Ben-Gurion and Chaim Weizman. But it had not been part of original Zionist ideology and was usually trotted out in response to explusionist or terroristic violence by the Arabs. [Prof Bug here: In the late 1930s, the British --- trying to stop Arab violence and terror --- armed many Jews to help them stop those attacks that went on for years.] The fact that the Peel Commission of 1937 supported the transfer of Arabs out of the Jewish state-to-be without doubt consolidated the wide acceptance of the idea among the Zionist Leaders..."
(2) Bennie Morris's book 1948, based on years of searching through Israeli official documents, interviews, and study of the Arab Press in 1948 --- there are no Arab official documents available to scholars or the media or anyone for that matter --- angered both right-wing and left-wing Israelis. The left-wingers denounced his most recent research because, they said, he downplayed the Israeli responsibility for the Arab refugees in 1948.
Here is an interview with Morris, a gifted even-handed scholar, on his most recent views of the 1948 war and two-state solution: http://articles.latimes.com/2012/nov/09/world/la-fg-israel-historian-qa-20121109 As you can see in that L.A. Times interview in 2012, Morris has become increasingly pessimistic about the Arab side, Palestinian and otherwise, when it comes to a two-state solution or the Arab ability anywhere to create an effective democracy, media freedom, the rule of law, the treatment of women, the treatment of gays, and their unwillingness to compromise on crucial issues if it makes the leaders look weak in the eyes of the Arab street(s).
(3 ) Haj Amin Al-Husseini, please consider a moment or two, was the spiritual head of the Palestinians (Mufti) in the 1930s and into WWII.
When his pro-Nazi negotiations with Hitler were discovered, he fled to Nazi Germany, became a friend of Hitler, helped create the Bosnian Muslim two SS-Waffen mass-killing Units, and was wanted for his murderous role in the war by both democratic Britain and Communist Yugoslavia. With French help, Al-Husseini found refuge in Egypt and became the mentor for Yasser Arafat . . . who was apparently related to Husseini by kinship of some sort.
Husseini, remember, backed Nazi Germany in WWII. His protégé Arafat did no better in choosing sides in the Cold War.
- Arafat later backed the Soviet Union until it collapsed and disappeared in 1990-91.
- Saddam Hussein in the Gulf War when Iraq invaded and took control of Kuwait and threatened the other Gulf States. The result of that great diplomatic move? Several hundred thousand Palestinian workers in the Gulf States were expelled by them immediately after the war.
Sources on Husseini and Arafat: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haj_Amin_al-Husseini#Amin_al-Husseini_and_antisemitism; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relations_between_Nazi_Germany_and_the_Arab_world; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yasser_Arafat
Please note: the three sources just listed are not peer-endorsed academic studies. They are, however, written by different anonymous authors who set out different sides of the personalities of Arafat and Husseini. For several photos of Husseini and his collaboration with the Nazis and his help in creating three mass-murdering Bosnian Muslim SS Waffen Divisions in WWII, go here: http://www.tellthechildrenthetruth.com/gallery/
TO BE CONTINUED IN PART 4