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Sunday, April 12, 2015

Jews, Their Languages, Their Diasporas, and Anti-Semitism For 3000 Years: Part 5

       Be Sure To Read the First Four Parts of This Series Before This Part

                JEWS, THE MIDDLE AGES, AND ANTI-SEMITISM (1095-2015)

 Jewish Expulsions As a Game of Musical Chairs

When things went wrong for the Medieval European masses --- not to forget all the Emperors, Kings, Princes, and Knights who had run up large debts to Jewish lenders --- slaughterhouse death-to-the-Jews riots  (AKA, Pogroms) were not the only way to pander to the enraged masses, while of course saving the rich and powerful debtors from having to pay back their debts.  Another way was just plain expulsions.  And as bad luck had it, expulsions of Jewish communities soared by the 14th century -- almost everywhere. 

Consider the record.  Jews were forced out of England in 1290, in France in 1392, and out of large parts of Germany, Italy, and the Balkan peninsula between 1350 and 1450 --- not to forget from fully Christianized Spain in 1492 and Portugal a few years later.  So where to go for the kicked-out Jews?  In the Reformation period, from the 1520s and half way into the 17th century, Calvinist-Protestant Holland was a refuge for some Jews.  Calvinists, unlike Lutherans, identified with the Jewish Bible and saw their new religion as Jewish in origin. 

Luther, by contrast,  went entirely kooky-ape about Jews when they wouldn't convert to his new religion and urged the rulers everywhere in Protestant lands  to  burn all the synagogues and kill off all the Jews in their regions.  

Click here for authoritative excerpts from his book entitled The Jews and Their Lies.

Sidebar Clarification: Here's one of Luther's outrageous, Nazi-like pleas to his Lutheran followers:

"My advice, as I said earlier, is: First, that their synagogues be burned down, and that all who are able toss sulphur and pitch; it would be good if someone could also throw in some hellfire...Second, that all their books-- their prayer books, their Talmudic writings, also the entire Bible-- be taken from them, not leaving them one leaf, and that these be preserved for those who may be converted...Third, that they be forbidden on pain of death to praise God, to give thanks, to pray, and to teach publicly among us and in our country...Fourth, that they be forbidden to utter the name of God within our hearing. For we cannot with a good conscience listen to this or tolerate it...The rulers must act like a good physician who, when gangrene has set in proceeds without mercy to cut, saw, and burn flesh, veins, bone, and marrow. Such a procedure must also be followed in this instance. Burn down their synagogues, forbid all that I enumerated earlier, force them to work, and deal harshly with them. If this does not help we must drive them out like mad dogs."

Unfortunately,·4 centuries later, ·"the mad-dog Jews" metaphor of Luther's was taken seriously by most of the inhabitants of ·Germany and lots and lots of other countries in Europe during WWII.

 

Second Sidebar Stuff: Jews Alone Could Legally Lend Money With Interests On Loans

Roman Catholicism, by two official councils in 345 C.E. and later in 789 C.E. along with several later councils in the Middle Ages, declared it was strictly sinful to lend money with interest --- the practice dubbed as evil usury.  Efforts by Catholics to maneuver around these Church declaration could lead the lenders to be punished as heretics and subject even to death.  The stupidity of these stone-age restrictions held back economic innovations and growth for centuries.  Only in the late 18th and 19th centuries were some of these restrictions officially eased, but not all of them.

Oddly, the same view of charging interest on loans as sinful usury was repeated in three of the four most prominent and influence of Protestant leaders in the Reformation period.  Luther, Melanchthon, and Zwingli.  The fourth, John Calvin, understood economics better, and he allowed certain kinds of interest as legitimate and his successors --- as capitalism broke through all sorts of barriers in the 17th and 18th centuries --- did the same, along with Lutherans and other Protestant sects. 

Jews, however, were allowed by the Catholic and later Protestant religions to lend with interest to anyone.  And that's how and why many Jews throughout Christian (and Islamic) history turned to financial lending and helped economic development.  At the same time, powerful Kings, Princes, and Aristocrats would borrow excessively to finance their spending surges and then --- unable to pay back the loans --- would join average borrowers in denouncing Jews as money-grubbing usurers who should either be imprisoned, killed, or expelled from the kingdoms and principalities they lived in.

And hence the stereotype of Jews, rampant in Christianity (and Islam later on), as greedy money-mad peoples and excessively powerful in the business world.  

Third Sidebar Stuff: Jump Ahead To The 18th, 19th, and 20th Centuries in Europe

In the early democratizing countries in the 18th and 19th centuries --- a little earlier after the English Civil Wars of the first half of the 17th century --- the treatment of the small Jewish communities became increasingly liberal: meaning, Britain, Scandinavia, and Netherlands. In France, despite its acceptance of Jews as citizens starting in the 19th century, anti-Semitism bounded ahead and became rife in much of the country from the Dreyfus affair in the 1890s right down and through the Vichy Nazi-collaborating French government in WWII. Italy was far more generous to the small prominent Jewish population right down to WWII. As for Iberia, Central and East Europe, the hatred of Jews was more and more frightening by and after WWI. (More about this later.}

WHICH COUNTRIES INVITED THE EXPELLED JEWS TO SETTLE THERE?

Jews in the Muslim World

The largest expulsions, remember from previous posts, where imposed on the biggest Jewish presence in Europe: Spain (and tiny Portugal).  That was in 1492, when King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella   --- the Queen as fanatic a Catholic of Dark-Age beliefs as ISIS death-cult types are in Islam ---offered two choices for Jews: convert to Catholicism (and come under the scrutinizing control of the Spanish Inquisition) or skedaddle as fast as you can out of our Kingdom.  With, of course, little or none of their possessions, almost all of which were stolen by Spaniards at all levels of life and status. 

Enter the Ottoman Empire (Ruling from the Ruins of the 1000-year Byzantine Empire in Istanbul, Turkey)

The countries that invited the Iberian Jews or at least let them enter and settle were those controlled by the vast Ottoman Empire's ruling Caliphate. Caliphs, people who were regarded as the  successor to Mohammed, were both the  religious and political leaders of all Islam.  Their leaders urged openly as many Sephardic Spanish- and other South-European Ladino-speaking Jews as they could entice to settle in their domains . . .  with a double-urge that the Jews specifically settle in the Empire's most backward countries in those days.  Those countries in the huge Ottoman Empire?   Not Egypt and the Mediterranean coastal Arabs.  No, the backward countries were the the conquered Slavic countries in much of Southern and Eastern Europe

In large numbers, the Sephardic Jewish refugees jumped at the offer. 

Why This Impressive Ottoman generosity?

Generally, in much of Islam everywhere, Jews were treated better than in Middle and Late Medieval Europe and for that matter in much of Early-Modern Europe from the 16th century on until way into the late 18th and early 20th centuries.  (The exceptions here, remember, were Britain, Netherlands, and the Scandinavian countries, plus Italy until the Mussolini dictator caved in to Nazi pressures in WWII and began sending the small, highly regard Jewish community to the Death-Camps)

Though the Ottoman Caliphs weren't democratic at any time in their vast Empire, they were generally enlightened in not seeking to force Islam on the conquered Slavic and other Christian kingdoms they ruled over in Europe.  It was, of course, not just out of generosity, but self-survival of the Empire.  To force Islam on Christian countries would spark large-scale rebellions. 

The same sort of self-interest informed the Caliphs to invite the Jews to settle in their Empire, and especially, to repeat, in the poor backward countries in East and Southern Europe (the Balkans). 

How so?

To Put This Plain and Simple: 

Jews ---from the Ottoman Caliphs viewpoints --- were seen as people with a Midas-touch who would markedly help develop their entire European colonies become richer and happier, with the Christian subjects increasingly grateful for Ottoman rule over them.  In turn, the Caliphates would gain more tax money and more warriors from among the Slavic, Greek, and  Magyar (Hungarians)  peoples . . . the result of which would enrich the Empire's elites and make it more powerful than ever. 

Another reason rears itself here.  The Ottoman Muslims --- Turkish-Mongol people (mixed together) --- were themselves largely uninterested in entering business enterprises or professional occupations like banking or medicine or scientific work.  They saw themselves as great warriors.  Business and the professions were for others.  The Arabs in the 15th and 16th centuries had lost some of their once impressive skills in those activities, but they were still better at it in the Mediterranean Levant and in Egypt than were the European Christian peoples that the Ottomans dominated.   

And so, thanks to the alleged Jewish settlers' Golden-Touch --- which was supposed to occur like magic --- developing swiftly the economies and efficiency of work in the  Balkans, Greece, and much of East Europe as far north as Hungary would make the Ottoman's European colonies more and more grateful to  Ottoman rule.

Ottoman Decline All the Same

Over the next few centuries --- even when the Ottoman Empire fell far behind the West European countries and began repeated military attacks and slaughter on rebel Greeks and Bulgarians and other European-ruled Ottoman countries in the 19th century --- the Turks never  blamed he Jews or tormented them.  This benign treatment all the more striking, considering that the more Christian countries rebelled against Ottoman rule --- starting with the Greeks in the 1820s ---all the way through the late 19th century, the more alarmed and vicious the Turks treated the rebels. 

As for the Arab countries in the Middle East, they were all ruled by the Ottomans until their rebellious-war in WWI, by which time the British in the last two years heavily supported and encouraged the defeat of their Turkish enemy that sided with Germany and the Austrian Empire. 

Source: a very good survey of Jewish life in the Ottoman Empire can be found here (click) 

                                                                    

                                          JEWS IN MODERN EUROPE                           

Query: Did life get better for Jews In the Late Enlightenment 1939 and WWII? 

Click to continue:

In some countries, yes life did get better . . . especially in the small Jewish communities in Scandinavia, Netherlands, and Britain, all solid and stable democracies from the early 1800's on. For the rest, the large majority of European countries, anti-Semitism grew in line with Jews forging ahead --- once the ghettos were opened up by the rulers --- in the professions, universities, schools, the media, finance, the sciences, and all the arts and humanities (not least philosophy).Demographics will clarify the trends. Consider the percentage of Jews in some key European countries in 1900:

 

France: 0.22%. Italy 0.10%. Netherlands 2.0%. Norway and Sweden 0.07%. United Kingdom and Ireland: 0.57%. Spain and Portugal: 0.02% in each. (Remember here: Jews had been expelled from the two countries in the 1490s)

Germany 1.04%. Austria: 4.7%. Hungary 4.43%. Poland 16.25% (Poland part of Czarist Russia until 1919). Romania 4.99%. Russian Empire in Europe: 3.17% USA: 1.97%. as a comparison.

 

 

The Data Interpreted

As you can see from the way the percentages are set out, the larger the Jewish percentages in European countries in 1900, the more they were found in Central and Eastern Europe . . . exactly where the worst Anti-Semitism, repeated pogroms and all, occurred way into the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries. The more "original Europeans" (an absurd term, all were of mixed ethnic-racial origins) found the competition from the Jews harder to match, the more they were embittered and fumed with harsh resentment. In particular, with the Jews' hard work ethos and innovations in business, their entrepreneurship, and their growing influence in the professions and finance, they were --- thanks to their demon-like cleverness --- undermining good Christians jobs in traditional guilds and other businesses, big or small, along with a swift entry upwards in the high-status professions (when they weren't shut out by local laws). And it got worse, the growing influence of these endlessly pushy and arrogant Jews.

How so?

The "morally corrupt" Jews, it was widely believed in the 19th and early 20th centuries, were twisting and perverting the traditional cultures and mental habits of these apparently helpless Europeans, and especially in Central and Eastern and Balkan Europe. And they did all this horrid stuff through their growing "control" (absurd!) of minds of children and students at all levels in schools, universities, and the media. Simultaneously, they were brusquely using their wiles and cunning strategies --- full of demonic dupery --- to enter and control political bureaucracies and leadership.

Naturally, then, the rulers' and other elites' ruthlessness, incompetence, and massive greed were also the fault of the Jewish bankers and advisers. All the while the poor downtrodden masses, and slower-witted members of high-status professions were being milked and swindled by the Jews. And so when you got down to it, how --- through the High Middle Age and much of modernity way into the 20th century --- how could good Christians live amongst such hellborn forever-tainted followers of Satan and his devilish Anti-Christ?

Remember here: the exceptions to this rife hatred by 1939, the start of WWII in Europe, were mainly found in Scandinavia, Netherlands, and Britain.

 

                               A KEY QUESTIONS PROMPTS ITSELF HERE:

    Why all this fear and off-and-on slaughtering of a tiny minority?  

                                Culminating in the Holocaust of WWII?

 Essentially, for several reasons, rooted and recreated in Christian Europe Since 1095 (or much earlier --- back   to the Christ-Killer imagery that emerged in both Roman and Orthodox Catholicism in the 4th century C.E.)

 

1.   In and long after the Reformation religious-wars ended in the mid-17th century, there was enduring Christian animosity in all forms toward the Jews except for Calvinist Protestantism . . . the Calvinists, strongly present in Netherlands and Scotland, feeling kinship with the ancient Jews and their history.

 

2.  Starting with the industrial and French revolutions near the end of the 18th century, the rapid changes in European life intensified relentlessly in speed and dislocating impact.

All of this dislocation was followed, understand, by multiple revolutionary upheavals in economic, cultural, religious, and political life --- the latter meaning mainly liberal democracy vs. autocracy and the Old Order of Kings, Clerics, and Aristocrats. Then, too, in the 19th and 20 centuries, secular political ideologies erupted almost everywhere. Consider the range: Liberal Democracy vs. Reactionary Conservatism vs. Socialisms of all sorts (Marxist and moderate) vs. Communism and Fascism and Nazism.

Not to overlook the most overreaching of these ideologies in Europe (and to an extent in the USA): militant Nationalism that added to the ideological clashes.

In Europe, throughout those two centuries, only Britain, Scandinavia, and Netherlands and Switzerland had political systems that could handle these ideological clashes through compromise and non-violent recourses.

Not so France.  It didn't have effective shock-absorbing remedies; Germany and the Austrian Empire were far worse off on this score . . . along with Spain and Portugal.  Italy was only slightly better off.  In the 1920s or 1930s, all five  countries succumbed to Fascisms of various stripes or to genocidal Nazism.  Then, too, in the same interwar period, Czarist Russia changed from autocratic rule to mass-killing Communism by revolution and the creation of the horrors of the Soviet Union.  And with the quick defeat by Nazi Germany of France in just a few weeks in the late spring of 1940, France was governed under Nazi scrutiny by the Nazi-collaborating Vichy regime. 

Wherever you looked in Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries --- with, remember, the exceptions of 4 tiny Scandinavian countries, semi-small Netherlands, and Great Britain --- political shock-absorbers that led to non-violent democratic comprises didn't exist or were weak and ineffective.  Small wonder that these politically feeble countries fell to either ruthless Fascisms of various sort or, in Russia, to ghastly Communism.

 

3. How and why did Jew-hatred speed ahead in Europe, on and on, in the 19th and 20th Centuries  down to 1945?  

The answer is fairly straightforward.  Specifically, all those rippling upheavals we've just looked at jarred and dislocated more and more Europeans as time went on, starting with the post-industrial and post-French revolutions and in their aftermath.  That aftermath, and all the tumult and non-stop changes in European life that followed  for 140 years, intensified in the first half of the 1900's.  With, recall, a handful of exceptions in Northwest Europe and Switzerland.

Amid these political and economic upheavals, more and more Europeans increasingly resented and succumbed to extremist ideologies. In turn, the more that Europeans felt rootless, threatened, harmed, and alienated, by these convulsive non-stop changes, the more they were enticed by clever demagogues of the extreme left or right to embrace their radical promises to ferret out and punish the vial perpetrators and their manipulations of the masses and elites --- for radical left-wingers the elites were reactionary capitalists and the duped masses, while for extremist right-wing agitators, mass followers, and the charismatic leaders like Mussolini or Hitler, capitalism was seen as also bad, but the real culprits were slack-spined Liberals lost in their cloudy dreams of democracy and, worse yet, Socialists of all sorts and outright Communists.  

In the 20 years after 1918 --- with the exception of Communism in the new Soviet Union --- it was the firebrand right-wing extremists, almost all ruthless Fascists or fanatical genocidal Nazis who won out amid one turbulent civil war or revolution after another. 

Note that not all Fascist leaders were fanatics and ultra war-mongers. 

All of them, it's true, were ruthless in gaining and holding power . . . Franco in Spain for instance or his military imitators in all of Eastern Europe down to 1939 except in tiny Czechoslovakia.  Mussolini was both: a fanatic and war-monger who promised Italians that they were a rejuvenated people under his guardianship who would lead them to the creation of a new Roman Empire in parts of Europe, the Middle East, and  North Africa.  Hitler was both too, though unlike Mussolini (his close friend and admirer) he was a frenzied  psycho-ward Jew-hater who blamed all of Germany's horrid woes --- and  those everywhere else in "decadent" Europe --- on the diabolical Jewish presence, genetic in origin and hence totally incorrigible and hence with only one solution: exterminating them all. 

And since in his view, Jews ruled both in capitalist Britain and America --- and in Communist Russia --- Nazi Germany had the obligation to destroy Communist Russia in a quick war and eventually, with Europe united under Hitler's dominant leadership, destroy eventually the demonic Jew-controlled USA . . . the last barrier to Nazi-ruled Europe's worldwide Empire. 

 

4. One more source of emotional jolting and rippling hatreds and resentments in Europe life needs to be stressed: the rapid speed of modernity and all its ever flaring changes in peoples' lives, starting in the 20th century and going on again today everywhere on the Continent (and to a more limited extent in the USA)

The biggest bugaboo is now called Globalization ---in economic life, in political life, and through fast-moving upheavals in much of inherited cultures. No need here to delve into all the changes in peoples live since, say, the late 1950s: end of segregation, decline in racism (in the USA anyway), more and more immigrants from what used to be called "3rd world countries", feminist movements to overcome subordination to males, new media (tv, the internet, cell phones, and email mainly), and of course marked sexual changes.

With backlashes against all of these, though again less so in Northwestern Europe and in North America than in the rest of Europe itself. Not to forget new threats, enabled in no small part by internet global connections for these terrorist groups and their leadership to communicate in ways hard to stop, along with more intrusions into private citizenry exchanges --- on both sides of the Atlantic.

 

                           The Predictable Outcome of All This?

                   The Upheavals and Scapegoating and Who to Blame?

You Guessed It: The Frightful and Ultra-Pushy Alien Jews

Simply said, Jews were the convenient scapegoats for all these rampant fears, and forebodings by the ship-load, and of course rampant animosities within and between European countries for a 1000 years after 1095.

The more wars, civil wars, and revolutions --- whether religious or secular in nature --- buffeted European life over 10 centuries,  the more Jews were readily blamed and recurringly attacked. Often, over those 11 centuries,  a kind of paranoia seemed to take hold of Europeans  --- all this frenzied and irrational mentality going on even after the great scientific and philosophical and artistic creativity of European of the 18th century of the Enlightenment, the struggle and spread of democracy in North Western Europe, and new laws that looked good on paper that enhanced civil rights.  

And yet, in almost all of Europe except in North-Western Europe --- specifically, right through the 19th century to 1945 ---few of these epochal changes could stabilize new democratic systems, let alone create effective cross-country cooperation across borders *as the EU has done since then). 

Instead, European life from Napoleonic times on --- meaning from about 1795 to 1945 --- was repeatedly struck almost everywhere by revolutions, counter-revolutions,  civil wars galore (the USA civil war the bloodiest war ever fought by Americans), relentless coups, and ultimately horrifying giant wars in WWI and WWII.  In both those wars, the combined number of Europeans killed is estimated to have been at least 60 million in number.    (As for total deaths world-wide during WWII alone, it has recently been found in scholarly work to be somewhere 60 million to possibly 85 million . . . Japanese militarism alone causing around 30 to 40 million deaths in Asia).  For source, click here

Blame-Shifting Onto Others, Seen as Demons and Boogeyman Monsters

Needless to add, populations in a shared state of a confused, angry, and frightening mentality will search, collectively, by one means or other, to find the root causes for their raging plight.  Most of the time, no surprise!  they collectively trace it to bugaboo minorities as the evil-scapegoats. 

These minorities are usually tiny in number.  Consider this:  In Nazi Germany in 1939, on the eve of WWII in Europe, the total German-speaking population was around 75 million.  The Jewish population numbered about 500,000 --- or around 0.06% of the total.  Never mind.  Did that calm down blasting Jew-hatred?  Not at all.  For the increasingly furious, desperately unhinged majority-citizenry, it's not percentages that counted.  What mattered to them was the looming demonic presence of these ultra-evil aliens in their midst.  

Between 1095 and 1945, to take the long-historical perspective of all this, these loathed hobgoblins could be witches, or black-magic monsters, or depraved religious heretics, or different and disliked races and ethnic groups, or gays, or immigrants . . .  with the most feared of all these hobgoblins being defenseless minorities who are small in numbers and unusually high-achievers in their new countries. 

They could be living in their adopted countries for centuries, as in Germany.  Never mind.  They are still feared and despised by the native populations, and especially if the despised tiny minority has been mistrusted and a source of hostility for long periods of time.

Key Archetypes

 The two highest achieving minorities that pop to mind  --- largely despised in Europe or elsewhere  both historically and to an extent these days --- are the overseas Chinese living in Asia or Africa (and to a limited extent in the USA before WWII) and of course Jews everywhere.  From the shared viewpoint of the native citizenry --- if  they live with a widely shared frame of mind fuming with fear and paranoia  --- these two high-flying minorities have been traditionally viewed as alien, arrogant, ultra-pushy outsiders .... who, of course, owe their marked success in their adopted countries not to their self-discipline and commitments to education, hard-work, and risk-taking innovations in the professions or business world or what have you, but instead to their conspiratorial, clannish, and conniving machinations and dupery of the helpless majority populations.

  

                           Something Important to Remember Here:

We're not talking about Europe or the USA in the year 2015, rather about Europe and Islam for the last 1000 years.  Right down into the late 18th centuries, almost all Europeans and Muslims believed in witchery, demons, Satan, and his fallen-angel servants, plus miracles galore (though always for the other guy).  A fair number of Europeans (and Americans probably) may still believe in these conspiratorial-scapegoats as responsible for their growing troubles, constant worries, and long-lived fears.

The main point that follows: Populations who live in a such a tangled and deranged state of alarmed mind --- full of anxiety and forebodings about the present and future  --- are ripe fodder for clever, fiendish demagogues out to manipulate and recruit them to their hate-filled causes.   With, promises, of vengeance and redemption.

 

Examples

On a wider plane --- not just in Europe --- consider the most brutal and murderous demagogues that, just in the last century,  large numbers of people in the world have flocked to for earthly salvation. Think of Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin, Mao, Pau-Pot (the head of the Cambodian Killing Fields), Bin-Laden, the ISIS-deathcult-fiends, the Boko-Harum jihadis, Ku Klux Klan sheet-wearers, Saddam Hussein, Ida Amen and . . . well, the list is long just for the last 70 years or so. Go back thousands of years and the list will grow very long. Everywhere.

In Europe, between WWI and the end of WWII in 1945, the giant scapegoat-people responsible for all these horrid changes and threats in European life were, of course, the Jews. And yet, even as the Holocaust was being planned and then implemented in WWII, Jews --- at the start of the war --- added up to just 0.5% of the German population (62 million, plus another 10 million or so in Austria annexed to Nazi Germany in the late 1930s).  By 1939, Anti-Semitism had become a rife European mental disorder.

And so, hard as it to believe, Jew-hating became ever worse in almost all Christian Europe in the century between 1845 or so and the end of WWII in 1945.

 

Sidebar Clarification

As prof bug mentioned in an earlier post on this subject, a very good academic study that came out in the late 1980s or early 1990s --- alas, he can't find the peer-approved article right now --- used a new technique to study the number of Jews killed by their non-Jewish neighbors from the 11th century (the start of the Crusades) until the start of WWII). He looked at all the birth and death certificates or years marked on gravestones of Jews he could find and compared them with the certificates or gravestone-years in the same era. What he found was that right into the early 20th century --- just before WWII and the start of the holocaust --- about half the Jews for a 1000 years in Europe were killed off by their neighbors (he controlled in his data for diseases: these should have been about equal for Jews and non-Jews over the centuries.)

 

To Put the Point Plainly:

 

Hitler, like it or not, wasn't noticeably wrong about Jew-Hatred Since 1095 in most of Europe

In several public speeches in the run-up to WWII, he said that win-or-lose his Nazi regime, with the aid of most European countries, would leave Europe Juden-Frei --- Jew-free.

The Jewish population in all of Europe in 1939 before WWII erupted? 9 million out of about a total of 500 million Europeans. Today: 1.2 million out of 750 million, about a third of which is due to Jews joining other French citizens who quickly immigrated to metropolitan France when the French pulled out of Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria between 1956 and 1962. --- and about a third of that due to immigration out of French-held Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia starting in 1957-58 to the end of French rule over Algeria in 1962

 

 

 

                  NEW JEW-HATING,MASS PARANOIA, AND BLAME-SHIFTING IN ISLAM NOW

It's hardly news that widely shared paranoia and hatred are now rampant in Islam, especially in Arab countries where it's taken for granted that the 15 million Jews belong to a World Jewish Conspiracy to keep them backward, poor (at least for the masses), and without hope for the future . . . rather, as Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad put it in plain English to the leaders of 58 Islamic countries at the 10th Islamic Summit Conference in 2003: Source: click here

Needless to add, these revelations of how Jews rule the world and Jews and their proxies are at the root causes of Islamic economic backwardness, mass poverty, raging armed conflicts of all sorts, the lacking sense of honor (rather oppression and humiliation)---needless to add, Mahathir got a rousing hip-hip hurrah! and ear-splitting clapping as the 57 other Muslim leaders jumped to their feet.

 

"The whole world is looking at us. Certainly 1.3 billion Muslims, one-sixth of the world's population are placing their hopes in us, in this meeting, even though they may be cynical about our will and capacity to even decide to restore the honour of Islam and the Muslims, much less to free their brothers and sisters from the oppression and humiliation from which they suffer today. I will not enumerate the instances of our humiliation and oppression, nor will I once again condemn our detractors and oppressors. It would be an exercise in futility because they are not going to change their attitudes just because we condemn them. If we are to recover our dignity and that of Islam, our religion, it is we who must decide, it is we who must act. . ."......

 

"Today we, the whole Muslim ummah are treated with contempt and dishonour. Our religion is denigrated. Our holy places desecrated. Our countries are occupied. Our people starved and killed. None of our countries are truly independent. We are under pressure to conform to our oppressors' wishes about how we should behave, how we should govern our lands, how we should think even. Today if they want to raid our country, kill our people, destroy our villages and towns, there is nothing substantial that we can do. Is it Islam which has caused all these? Or is it that we have failed to do our duty according to our religion?..."......

 

"There is a feeling of hopelessness among the Muslim countries and their people. They feel that they can do nothing right. They believe that things can only get worse...."

 

"The Muslims will forever be oppressed and dominated by the Europeans and the Jews. They will forever be poor, backward and weak. Some believe, as I have said, this is the Will of Allah, that the proper state of the Muslims is to be poor and oppressed in this world."But is it true that we should do and can do nothing for ourselves? Is it true that 1.3 billion people can exert no power to save themselves from the humiliation and oppression inflicted upon them by a much smaller enemy? Can they only lash back blindly in anger? Is there no other way than to ask our young people to blow themselves up and kill people and invite the massacre of more of our own people?...".....

 

"It cannot be that there is no other way. 1.3 billion Muslims cannot be defeated by a few million Jews. There must be a way. And we can only find a way if we stop to think, to assess our weaknesses and our strength, to plan, to strategise and then to counter attack. As Muslims we must seek guidance from the Al-Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet. Surely the 23 years' struggle of the Prophet can provide us with some guidance as to what we can and should do...."......

 

"We are actually very strong. 1.3 billion people cannot be simply wiped out. The Europeans killed 6 million Jews out of 12 million. But today the Jews rule this world by proxy. They get others to fight and die for them...."

 

 

 

  TO BE CONTINUED IN PART 6 --- THE LAST IN THIS SERIES